Prostate Cancer With Bone Metastasis Prognosis

A prostate cancer with bone metatsasis prognosis is a prediction of how the cancer will develop and of how potential the person is to recover from the condition when cancer cells spread to the bones. Areas of cancer spread in the bones are called bone metastases.

Many people with cancer will develop bone metastases at some point in their cancer stage. Bones are often a area of metastases for certain common tumors, such as breast and prostate cancers. Bone Metastasis can occur in any bone in the body, but are most often found in bones near the center of the body. The spine is the most common area of bone metastasis. Other common area are the hip bone (pelvis), upper leg bone (femur), upper arm bone (humerus), ribs, and the skull.

Once prostate cancer has spread to the bones or to other area in the body it is rarely able to be cured, but oftentimes it can still be treated to shrink, stop, or decelerate its growth. Even if a cure is no more possible, treating the cancer probably able to support you to live longer and feel better. Other therapy can help prevent or manage cancer symptoms.

Doctors cannot anticipate for sure who will develop bone metastasis. But they do know that certain kinds of cancer (breast, prostate, lung, thyroid, and kidney cancers) are more expected to spread to bones than others. Among people with the similar kind of cancer, tumors that are larger and have already spread to lymph nodes are generally more probable to spread to bone. For some forms of cancer, a high grade (where the cancer cells look very abnormal under a microscope) and certain genetical changes make the cancer more probable to spread to bones.

Finding and treating bone metastasis early can help prevent problems later on. Bone pain is often the first symptom of cancer that has spread to the bone. The pain often comes and goes at first. It tends to be worse at night and may be relieved by movement. Later on, it can become constant and may be worse during activity.

Fractures bones weakened from metastatic cancer may break (fracture). The fracture can happen with a fall or injury, but a weak bone can also break during everyday activities. These fractures often cause sudden, severe pain. The pain may keep you from moving much at all. In some cases, a fracture is the first sign of bone metastasis.

Cancer growth in the bones of the spine can press on the spinal cord. This is called spinal cord compression and is very serious. The spinal cord has nerves that allow you to move and feel what happens to your body. Some of these nerves also control other functions such as bowel and bladder control. One of the very earliest symptoms is pain in the back or neck. Pressure on the spinal cord can damage the nerves in the spinal cord, leading to symptoms like numbness and weakness in the area of the body below the tumor. If it isn’t treated, the person can become paralyzed.

High blood calcium levels, when cancer spreads to the bones, calcium from the bones can be released into the bloodstream. This can lead to high levels of calcium in the blood (called hypercalcemia), which can cause problems such as constipation, nausea, loss of appetite, and extreme thirst. The high calcium causes you to make more urine, leading to dehydration. It can also make you feel very tired and weak. You may be sleepy or even confused. If hypercalcemia is not treated, you can even go into a coma.

Bone metastases may sometimes be found before they have a chance to cause any symptoms. Your doctor may order lab tests and imaging tests (such as x-rays or bone scans) to see how far the cancer has spread. Imaging tests use x-rays, magnetic fields, or radioactive substances to create pictures of the inside of the body. Imaging tests may be done for a number of reasons, including to help find out if cancer has spread to the bones. Thus, giving a better prostate cancer with bone metatsasis prognosis by doctors.

Prognosis For Metastatic Prostate Cancer

Once a doctor has analysed results from prostate tests such as a biopsy, PSA test TNM staging results, prostate cancer stage score, and Gleason score, the doctor will make a prognosis for prostate cancer. A prognosis is a prediction of how the cancer will develop and of how potential the person is to recover from the condition. Metastatic prostate cancer occurs when a case of prostate cancer advances and develops the ability to invade other tissues. One of the difficulties of a prognosis for metastatic prostate cancer is that there are a lot of variables that can affect the rates of recurrence and survival time. As a result, many oncologists have worked to create better ways of estimating the prognosis for different patients based on characteristics of their cancer.

As different people will respond differently to treatments, the prediction of the prognosis for metastatic prostate cancer is not set in stone. Results of a prognosis of prostate cancer are typically given in five and ten year survival terms (adopting the recommended treatment) for a person. For example, someone with an advanced prostate cancer prognosis form will likely have a lower percentage 5 year survival rate than someone with an earlier diagnosed condition.

Another factor that plays a huge role in the prognosis of metastatic prostate cancer is the location of the metastases. Metastases that have appeared on sensitive and vital organs (such as the heart or brain) are much more serious than lymphatic metastases.

Understanding of the metastatic cancer here is the spread of cancer to other body parts. The cause of this is due to the growth and development of cancer cells that causes them to separate themselves from first masses and initially settled in other parts of the body to form a new mass through the lymphatic system and bloodstream.

The dangers of metastatic cancer while in the advanced stage due to late or not detected early can reduce healing rate that can affect survival of patients and it is difficult to get a complete cure despite using many methods of treatment.

Poor prognosis of metastatic prostate cancer is almost always obtained patients with late stage cancer. This is because the cancer itself is a late-stage metastatic prostate cancer which has a low survival prognosis. So do not be surprised if in another cancer stages have a better prognosis for the first 5 years than in late stages.

Prostate Cancer Side Effects After Surgery

Surgery is one options available for the treatment of prostate cancer. However, decision should be made only after discussing the risks and benefits of the procedure with your doctor as there are prostate cancer side effects after the surgery. Issues that need to be taken into account consists the nature of the cancer, age and general health.

The short term side effects with any type of radical prostatectomy are much like those with any major surgery, including side effects risks from anesthesia. Among the most serious, there is a small risk of heart attack, stroke, blood clots in the legs that may travel to your lungs, and infection at the incision site. If the lymph nodes are removed, a collection of lymph fluid (called a lymphocele) can be formed and may need to be drained.Because there are many blood vessels near the prostate gland, another risk is bleeding during and after the surgery. Blood transfusions may be required, which carry their own small risk.

There are also long term prostate cancer side effects after the surgery because the process of removing the prostate and ensuring all cancer cells are cleared can cause damages to the erectile nerves which rest adjacent to the prostate gland. Incontinence, loss of bladder control, can also be a long term side effects because when the prostate is removed, the internal sphincter (proximal) is also removed. This means the patient relies only upon the external (distal) sphincter to control the flow of urine after surgery. The other side effects can be impotance, which is the inability to achieve or sustain an erection, because the prostate lies next to the nerves and blood vessels that are important for erections, and these nerves and vessels can be damaged during the operation.

Incontinence side effects may inlcudes:
1. Stress incontinence - urine leak when cough, laugh, sneeze, or exercise, which is usually caused by problems with the muscular valve that keeps urine in the bladder (the bladder sphincter).

2. Overflow incontinence - bladdeer is not empty well. Requires a longer time to urinate and have a dribbling stream with little force. Overflow incontinence is usually caused by blockage or narrowing of the bladder outlet by scar tissue.

3. Urge incontinence - a sudden need to urinate. This problem occurs when the bladder becomes too sensitive to stretching as it fills with urine.

Each man's situation is different, so the best way to get an idea of prostate cancer side effects after surgery is to ask your doctor about his or her success rates and what the outcome is likely to be in your particular case.

Read related post: Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy Side Effects 

Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy Side Effects

Comparing to other several kinds of prostate cancer treatment, radiation therapy is considered to be an effective treatment. Despite the proven advantages and benefits, there are also known prostate cancer radiotherapy side effects due to the very high levels of radiations or x-rays used for killing the cancer cells, thus to burning them to their core which may lead to other medical complications..

Prostate cancer radiotherapy involves channelising radiation to the body parts affected by cancer with the aid of thin plastic tubes. Despite best efforts on the part of doctors, it is inevitable that just the cancer cells get eliminated, healthy cells will also get affected, hence, causing many unwanted side effects.

List of Prostate Cancer Radio therapy Side Effects:

1. Skin becoming swollen, red and sensitive, similar to a sunburned skin. Skin may peeling off or become tender and moist. Skin can gets darken and thicken and enlarged pores are some long-term side effects of radio therapy treatment. The skin can become more sensitive or its sensitivity can be reduced for a long time too.

2. Loss of hair and reduced perspiration on the affected area is also common.

3. Another usual prostate cancer radiation side effects is feeling loss of energy or fatigue. This side effect can be managed by taking adequate rest and regular naps. A sound diet is also beneficial in dealing with radiotherapy related fatigue and exhaustion. However, this symptom goes away after radiation therapy gets completed successfully.

4. Impotence is another chief side effect faced by patients after taking radiation therapy. Damage to the reproductive system leading to erectile dysfunction and urinary symptoms like bleeding, frequency and incontinence in some cases can result from radiation therapy.

5. Nausea and vomiting may also result from radiotherapy treatment.

6. Incontinence and diarrhea can result from the radiation beam passing through the bladder, rectum, intestines and through to the intestine. As the time of beaming of radiation towards prostate’s malignant, urinary bladder may also get exposed to radiation, and get damaged. This can lead to patient’s inability in controlling bowel functions of defecation or urination and the urge to excrete.

Learning about Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy Side Effects will help patients in detecting and treating them effectively, in most cases, by changing their daily schedule. You may also want to know about Prostate Cancer Side Effects After Surgery.

Prostate Cancer Stages 1-10 Defined

Stages of Prostate Cancer Defined

The stages of prostate cancer is defined as the approximation of the sizing and location of the cancer at the current time. More specifically, it denotations to how extended the cancer is inside the prostate and if it has outspread to tissues across the prostate or to other parts of the body. The stages of the cancer is the most crucial deciding factor in which treatment will be used.

In general, prostate cancer can be classify into 4 stages using the Whitmore-Jewett system or the TNM system and sub-divide into stages 1-10 using the Gleason grading system. The following will illustrate further using the Whitmore-Jewett system and Gleason system:

Stage Tumor Nodes Metastasis Grade
Stage 1 T1a N0 M0 G1
Stage 2 T1a N0 M0 G2–4
T1b N0 M0 Any G
T1c N0 M0 Any G
T1 N0 M0 Any G
T2 N0 M0 Any G
Stage 3 T3 N0 M0 Any G
Stage 4 T4 N0 M0 Any G
Any T N1 M0 Any G
Any T Any N M1 Any G

Prostate Cancer Stage 1
Stage 1 prostate cancer is discovered in the prostate only. Prostate cancer stage 1 is microscopic, the cancer is very small and confined to the prostate. It can’t be felt on a digital rectal exam (DRE), and it isn’t seen on imaging of the prostate.

Prostate Cancer Stage 2
Stage 2 prostate cancer, the tumor has grown inside the prostate but hasn’t went beyond it. The cancer can be felt as a hard lump during a rectal examination, but it is still inside the prostate gland.

Prostate Cancer Stage 3
Stage 3 prostate cancer has started to break through the outer area of the prostate gland, but only scantily. Prostate cancer in stage 3 may affect nearby tissues, like the seminal vesicles.

Prostate Cancer Stage 4
In stage 4, the cancer has spread (metastasized) beyond the prostate to other tissues. Stage 4 prostate cancer usually spreads to lymph nodes, bladder or back passage (rectum) or to more distant organs such as the bones, liver, or lungs.

T1: The doctor cannot feel the tumor or see it with imaging such as transrectal ultrasound.
  • T1a: Cancer is discovered by chance during a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) that was conducted for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Cancer is in no greater than 5% of the tissue abstracted.
  • T1b: Cancer is found during a TURP but is in over 5% of the tissue abstracted.
  • T1c: Cancer is discovered by needle biopsy that was conducted because of an increased PSA.

T2: Doctor can find the cancer with a digital rectal exam (DRE) or determine it with
imaging such as transrectal ultrasound, but it is still confined to the prostate gland.

T3: The cancer has started to grow and spread beyond the prostate and may have spread into the seminal vesicles.

T4: The cancer has grown into tissues outside the prostate (other than the seminal vesicles), such as the urethral sphincter (muscle that helps control urination), the rectum, the bladder, and/or the wall of the pelvis.

If the cancer has spread to other parts of the body this is known as metastatic, secondary, or advanced prostate cancer.

Accurately distinguishing the prostate cancer stage is extremely crucial. Prostate cancer stage helps ascertain the optimal treatment, as well as prognosis. For this reason, it’s worth going through extensive examination to get the correct prostate cancer stages 1-10.

What Cause Prostate Cancer?

What Is Prostate Cancer Caused By?

It seems that there are no specific what prostate cancer is caused by, since it eventually appears in nearly all men if they live long enough. Prostate Cancer seen more today because screening can detects more. Men often die without realising they have prostate cancer because they may die of some other cause, and it may be only be discovered when an autopsy is done.

There are several causes that could increase the risk of having prostate cancer. For examples: age (over 65), race (African Americans are found to have higher rates while Asian have lower), Family history, location of living, smoking, diet (increase calcium and lack of veggies) agent orange, and lack of exercise. Some are inherited, prostate cancer can be encountered in men even in their 30's and 40's. Men with a family history of prostate cancer are more probable causes to develop prostate cancer but most occur due to environmental influences such as diet, infection, and inflammation.

A low fat diet high in fruits & vegetables seems to be protective against aggressive prostate cancer. Doctors or experts are not certain what cause prostate cancer, but experts generally agree that diet contributes to the risk. Men who take large amounts of fat, particularly from red meat and other sources of animal fat are more potentially to develop advanced prostate cancer. The disease is much more common in countries where meat and dairy products are dietary staples.

The underlying causes linking to diet and prostate cancer is probably hormonal. Fats stimulate increased production of testosterone and other hormones, and testosterone acts to speed the growth of prostate cancer. High testosterone levels may cause inactive prostate cancer cells into activity. Some findings indicate that high testosterone levels also influence the initial onset of prostate cancer. Eating meat may be risky for other reasons, such as meat cooked at high temperatures brings forth cancer-causing substances that directly bear upon the prostate. Other risk factors like men frequently exposed to the metal cadmium seem to be abnormally vulnerable to prostate cancer.

The followings are affiliated with an increased risk and what prostate cancer is caused by: Height, high body mass index, low physical activity, smoking, low tomato sauce consumption, high calcium intake, high linoleic acid intake, African-American race, and a positive family history. On a more common level, prostate cancer is caused by changes in the DNA (the chemical that makes up our genes) of a prostate cell. In recent years, scientists have made great advancement in understanding how certain changes in DNA can cause normal prostate cells to develop abnormally and form cancers.Check out Symptom For Prostate Cancer.